The correct option is (d) The early solar system had large amounts of water; so, the oldest objects in the solar system should also be abundant in water.
The statement that answers the scientific questions in the form of scientific data that supports the claim is called a scientific claim. There is need for the justification of the claim. The scientific claim here is The early solar system had large amounts of water and the justification to the claim is water is found in all the primitive bodies like the comets and the asteroids and in many dwarf planets like ceres. There are many evidences that shows that there are abundant amount of water in our solar system.
No, a specie cannot undergo exponential growth forever. The growth of any specie depends on the availability of food, water and space. Since Earth is finitely big, the space is limited, and so is the amount of fresh water and food. These limiting factors form the carrying capacity of a specie. It is denoted by the English alphabet 'k' in the differential equation for population growth. When the growth of a specie exceeds 'k', the growth becomes negative. Thus putting a halt to the exponential increase of the population.