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In Hawaii, there are volcanoes. Before anything was there, the volcanoes erupted which produced volcanic rock. Lichens were the first species to arrive, and they broke down the rock into soil. Eventually, shrubs began to grow and, later, trees grew there. Now, the islands are functioning at their climax community. What is the pioneer species in this example? A. Shrubs B. Lichens C. Trees D. Rock

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