* More than 40 proteins and glycoproteins involved in the complement system are synthesized by the liver, macrophages, epithelial cells, they are present in the blood in plasmatic form, membrane, some have an enzymatic activity, regulator or membrane receptorThese are elements of the humoral innate immune response, they fight infections, purify immune complexes and apoptotic bodies. There are indeed three ways to activate the complement: Classical pathway: Activated by Immunoglobulins in immune complexes, aggregated Immunoglobulins, DNA, CRP, apoptotic bodies .......it involves nine fractions, starting with C1, then C4, C2, C3, to form a classical C5 convertase, then, activation of C5, C6, C7, C8, C9.
Alternative pathway: activated by polysaccharides (bacterial endotoxin), vascular wall poor in sialic acid, aggregated IgE ...C3b like is the first component in the alternate channel cascade, it will create an amplification loop, and form an alternative C5 convertase.
Lecithin pathway: Activated by mannose, fucose (carbohydrate of microorganisms)The first component is the complex MBL / MASP1 / MASP2: "mannose-binding protein": works according to the same principle as the complex C1 of the classical way (MASP2 cleaves the C4 and the rest of the cascade is equivalent to that of the classical way).
the three ways have the same outcome: A C5 convertase (formed by one of the pathways) cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b: C5b is deposited far from other fractions on the antigenic surface. The fixation of C5b in the cell is followed by that of C6, C7, C8, and C9 (9 molecules of C9): formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) ==> Death of the cell by osmotic shock
The correct answer will be option sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system is a type of autonomic nervous system which response in conditions of stress such as threat or injury or fight or flight conditions.
They communicate with the Peripheral nervous system via sympathetic ganglia- pre and post a ganglionic in which pre-ganglionic neurons release acetylcholine in response to stimulus which binds to receptors on post-ganglionic neurons which release adrenaline. This adrenaline increases the heart rate, respiration, cellular metabolism, pupil dilation.
Thus, the sympathetic nervous system is the correct option.
--The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. -- It is composed of the heart, blood, blood vessels and also includes the lungs.
The primary function of the circulatory system to distribute oxygen, nutrients, hormones and other gases to cells of the other body systems. It delivers all the necessary components needed for all the cell activities. Without the circulatory system, we would not be alive.
It is our blood that carries these necessary nutrients, hormones, and oxygen. All these components trigger certain processes that keep other organs functioning. It also plays a role in eliminating waste by carrying them to the necessary organs that will filter them out. Without a way to dispose of waste, the body will eventually die.
living things need non living things to survive. Without food, water, and air, living things die. ... Plants use water from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from sunlight to make their own food.
The Sympathetic Nervous System is known to be a part of the autonomic nervous system or the ANS, wherein it also includes the parasympathetic nervous system or known as the PNS. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the activation of the act known as fight or flight response.